Drag and Fuel Efficiency
Improving the aerodynamics of tractor-trailers has become a big issue in recent years. This is because heavy trucks burn a lot of diesel as they push up against air resistance. When an 18-wheeler travels on the highway, more than 50% of its fuel use goes toward reducing aerodynamic “drag.”
Cutting the drag on trucks will also cut down fuel consumption. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California is studying ways to improve the fuel economy of tractor-trailers. The lab’s researchers believe a combination of devices that improve truck aerodynamics could reduce trucking industry fuel consumption by 12%. That would equal more than $10 billion in diesel fuel savings per year.
Streamlining Your Fleet
What this means for your fleet is that adding the right aerodynamic devices can generate significant savings at the pump. Not all devices are equal in making the air smoother around a Class 8 rig as it barrels down the interstate. It is important to know what improvements reduce the most drag—and save the most fuel.
Four areas create the most aerodynamic drag on a tractor-trailer: the front of the tractor, the gap between the tractor and the trailer, the under-body of the trailer and the back of the trailer. Trucking companies added streamlined shields to the tops of truck cabs to save on gas after the oil embargos of the 1970s. In recent years, “side skirts” that reduce the air flow under trailers have become a common sight on the highway. Some trucking companies are now experimenting with devices that cut drag in the tractor-trailer gap and in the rear of the trailer.
Here are the most effective steps you can take to make your trucks more aerodynamic and fuel efficient, according to industry experts:
- Narrow the Gap. Research shows that a gap of 18 inches or more between the tractor and trailer could lead to increased air resistance. Devices that completely cover the gap can reduce aerodynamic drag by as much as 6%. Several gap-fairing products on the market advertise fuel savings of 2% by narrowing the gap.
- “Skirt” the Issue. Many trucking companies have adopted side skirts. By reducing the air underneath trailers, fuel savings of between 4% and 7% have been reported by side skirt manufacturers.
- Reduce Tail Winds. Wind tunnel and road tests show that adding a 24- to 32-inch “boat tail” can reduce turbulence behind a trailer’s square rear end. According to manufacturers, boat tails can save more than 6% on fuel for tractor-trailers traveling at 65 miles per hour.
Other devices like wheel covers, slotted mud flaps and vortex generators lead to modest reductions in drag. These improvements alone do not lead to significant fuel savings.
A Cumulative Effect
Aerodynamic modifications add up to significant fuel savings when they are implemented together. Fleet owners who install gap fairings, side skirts and boat tails on their trucks can increase their fuel efficiency by 14% or more, according to industry sources. The cost of adding these devices is quickly offset by savings at the pump. A company that spends $1 million each year on fuel, for example, could expect to save more than $140,000 a year.
Trucks of the Future
For fleet owners with more money to spend, there are new, eco-friendly trucks coming to the market that offer streamlined bodies and big fuel savings. Airflow’s BulletTruck reportedly gets 13.4 miles to the gallon, while Peterbilt and Cummins Inc.’s SuperTruck has achieved 10.7 miles per gallon. These are both big improvements as most tractor-trailers on the road average about 6 miles per gallon.
Walmart has entered the game with its WAVE (Walmart Advanced Vehicle Experience) concept truck. The truck is reported to be 20% more aerodynamic than Walmart’s current fleet trucks. It also features a trailer made from carbon fiber that weighs about 4,000 pounds less than a conventional trailer.
These new trucks could represent as much as $20,000 in annual fuel savings per vehicle, according to some industry reports. They may arrive on the market just in time for new fuel regulations from Washington. The federal Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency are expected to toughen fuel efficiency standards on heavy trucks by the 2018 model year.
Sources: The New York Times, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Transport Canada, Walmart, Airflow Truck Co., Peterbilt Motors Co., Cummings Inc.